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Cerebral palsy-(C.P)- A disorder of movement and posture Caused by a non-progressive injury to the immature brain. Change in muscle tone and posture, both at rest and with voluntary activity.

Classicification of C.P.

Spastic- Diaplegia, Quadriplegia, Tetraplegia & Hemiplegia
Dyskinetic- Athetoid, Choreiform, Ballistic, Ataxic
Hypotonic
Microcephalic
Mixed

Gross Motor functional classification level

Level –1-Walks without restriction, limitation in high-level skills.
Level-2-Walks without devices, limitations walking outdoors.
Level-3-Walk with devices, limitations walking outdoors.
Level-4- –Limited mobility , power mobility outdoors.
Level-5-Very limited self mobility, even with assistive technology.

Symptoms of cerebral palsy-C.P

1. What are the signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy?
A person with cerebral palsy will generally show symptoms during the first three years of life

1. Achieves developmental milestones, such as crawling, walking, or speaking, later than his/her peers.
2. Crawls in an unusual way.
3. Has abnormal muscle tone – the child will slouch while sitting. Muscle tone refers to a person’s automatic ability to tighten and relax muscle when required.
4. Has difficulty feeding and sucking.
5. Lies down in awkward positions.
6. Can be easily startled.
7. Favors one side of the body over the other.
8. Has overdeveloped or underdeveloped muscles (has floppy or stiff movements).
9. Has bad coordination and balance (ataxia).
10. Has involuntary, slow writing movements (athetosis).
11. Muscles are stiff and contract abnormally (spastic paralysis).
12. Has hearing problems.
13. Has problems with eyesight.
14. Has bladder control problems.
15. Has bowel movement control problems.
16. Has seizures.
17. Has problems swallowing.
18. Range of movements are limited etc.

Treatments

1.   NDT/Bobath Techniques
2.   Sensory Integration Therapy
3.   PNF
4.   CIMT
5.   Group Therapy
6.   Oro motor Exercises/Activities
7.   Swiss ball exercises/Activities
8.   Bean Baag exercises/ Activities
9.   Fundamental Exercises/Activities
10. Developmental Exercises/Activities
11. Gross/Fine motor Exercises/Activities
12. Co-ordination Exercises/Activities
13. Balance exercises/Activities
14. Mobility Exercises/Activities
15. Gait Training
16. ADL Training
17. Positioning Devices
18. Hand Splint
19. Wheelchair Training
20. AFO, Graiters, Modifed Shoes
21. Assistive & Adaptive devices.
22. Botox/Phenol block Injection Surgery & many more ,Effective in improving ROM and
reducing tone. Also effective in improving motor control .Best results: Botox + Serial
casting Indications for Use of Botox: Calf injection for dynamic equinus persistent
throughout the gait cycle. Hamstring injection for dynamic knee flexion Adductor
injection for scissoring Diagnostic measures before surgery Management of focal
limb dystonia. Analgesia for pain and spasm in the perioperative period In the UE,
persistent thumb in palm, wrist posture preventing hand use, and elbow flexion.